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Use service topology to realize topology-aware traffic routing

· 6 min read
Feng Zeng

Service Topology enables a service to route traffic based on the Node topology of the cluster. For example, a service can specify that traffic be preferentially routed to endpoints that are on the same Node as the client, or in the same availability NodePool.

The following picture shows the general function of the service topology.

service-topology

To use service topology, the EndpointSliceProxying feature gate must be enabled, and kube-proxy needs to be configured to connect to Yurthub instead of the API server.

You can set the topologyKeys values of a service to direct traffic as follows. If topologyKeys is not specified or empty, no topology constraints will be applied.

annotation Keyannotation Valueexplain
openyurt.io/topologyKeyskubernetes.io/hostnameOnly to endpoints on the same node.
openyurt.io/topologyKeyskubernetes.io/zone
or
openyurt.io/nodepool
Only to endpoints on the same nodepool.

Prerequisites

  1. Kubernetes v1.18 or above, since EndpointSlice resource needs to be supported.
  2. Yurt-app-manager is deployed in the cluster.

How to use

Ensure that kubernetes version is v1.18+.

$ kubectl get node
NAME STATUS ROLES AGE VERSION
kind-control-plane Ready master 6m21s v1.18.19
kind-worker Ready <none> 5m42s v1.18.19
kind-worker2 Ready <none> 5m42s v1.18.19

Ensure that yurt-app-manager is deployed in the cluster.

$ kubectl get pod -n kube-system 
NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE
coredns-66bff467f8-jxvnw 1/1 Running 0 7m28s
coredns-66bff467f8-lk8v5 1/1 Running 0 7m28s
etcd-kind-control-plane 1/1 Running 0 7m39s
kindnet-5dpxt 1/1 Running 0 7m28s
kindnet-ckz88 1/1 Running 0 7m10s
kindnet-sqxs7 1/1 Running 0 7m10s
kube-apiserver-kind-control-plane 1/1 Running 0 7m39s
kube-controller-manager-kind-control-plane 1/1 Running 0 5m38s
kube-proxy-ddgjt 1/1 Running 0 7m28s
kube-proxy-j25kr 1/1 Running 0 7m10s
kube-proxy-jt9cw 1/1 Running 0 7m10s
kube-scheduler-kind-control-plane 1/1 Running 0 7m39s
yurt-app-manager-699ffdcb78-8m9sf 1/1 Running 0 37s
yurt-app-manager-699ffdcb78-fdqmq 1/1 Running 0 37s
yurt-controller-manager-6c95788bf-jrqts 1/1 Running 0 6m17s
yurt-hub-kind-control-plane 1/1 Running 0 3m36s
yurt-hub-kind-worker 1/1 Running 0 4m50s
yurt-hub-kind-worker2 1/1 Running 0 4m50s

Configure kube-proxy

To use service topology, the EndpointSliceProxying feature gate must be enabled, and kube-proxy needs to be configured to connect to Yurthub instead of the API server.

$ kubectl edit cm -n kube-system kube-proxy
apiVersion: v1
data:
config.conf: |-
apiVersion: kubeproxy.config.k8s.io/v1alpha1
bindAddress: 0.0.0.0
featureGates: # 1. enable EndpointSliceProxying feature gate.
EndpointSliceProxying: true
clientConnection:
acceptContentTypes: ""
burst: 0
contentType: ""
#kubeconfig: /var/lib/kube-proxy/kubeconfig.conf # 2. comment this line.
qps: 0
clusterCIDR: 10.244.0.0/16
configSyncPeriod: 0s

Restart kube-proxy.

$ kubectl delete pod --selector k8s-app=kube-proxy -n kube-system
pod "kube-proxy-cbsmj" deleted
pod "kube-proxy-cqwcs" deleted
pod "kube-proxy-m9dgk" deleted

Create NodePools

  • Create test nodepools.
$ cat << EOF | kubectl apply -f -
apiVersion: apps.openyurt.io/v1alpha1
kind: NodePool
metadata:
name: beijing
spec:
type: Cloud

---

apiVersion: apps.openyurt.io/v1alpha1
kind: NodePool
metadata:
name: hangzhou
spec:
type: Edge
annotations:
apps.openyurt.io/example: test-hangzhou
labels:
apps.openyurt.io/example: test-hangzhou

---

apiVersion: apps.openyurt.io/v1alpha1
kind: NodePool
metadata:
name: shanghai
spec:
type: Edge
annotations:
apps.openyurt.io/example: test-shanghai
labels:
apps.openyurt.io/example: test-shanghai
EOF
  • Add nodes to the nodepool.
$ kubectl label node kind-control-plane apps.openyurt.io/desired-nodepool=beijing
node/kind-control-plane labeled

$ kubectl label node kind-worker apps.openyurt.io/desired-nodepool=hangzhou
node/kind-worker labeled

$ kubectl label node kind-worker2 apps.openyurt.io/desired-nodepool=shanghai
node/kind-worker2 labeled
  • Get NodePool.
$ kubectl get np
NAME TYPE READYNODES NOTREADYNODES AGE
beijing Cloud 1 0 63s
hangzhou Edge 1 0 63s
shanghai Edge 1 0 63s

Create UnitedDeployment

  • Create test united-deployment1. To facilitate testing, we use a serve_hostname image. Each time port 9376 is accessed, the hostname container returns its own hostname.
$ cat << EOF | kubectl apply -f -
apiVersion: apps.openyurt.io/v1alpha1
kind: UnitedDeployment
metadata:
labels:
controller-tools.k8s.io: "1.0"
name: united-deployment1
spec:
selector:
matchLabels:
app: united-deployment1
workloadTemplate:
deploymentTemplate:
metadata:
labels:
app: united-deployment1
spec:
template:
metadata:
labels:
app: united-deployment1
spec:
containers:
- name: hostname
image: mirrorgooglecontainers/serve_hostname
ports:
- containerPort: 9376
protocol: TCP
topology:
pools:
- name: hangzhou
nodeSelectorTerm:
matchExpressions:
- key: apps.openyurt.io/nodepool
operator: In
values:
- hangzhou
replicas: 2
- name: shanghai
nodeSelectorTerm:
matchExpressions:
- key: apps.openyurt.io/nodepool
operator: In
values:
- shanghai
replicas: 2
revisionHistoryLimit: 5
EOF
  • Create test united-deployment2. Here we use nginx image, in order to access the hostname pod that created by united-deployment1 above.
$ cat << EOF | kubectl apply -f -
apiVersion: apps.openyurt.io/v1alpha1
kind: UnitedDeployment
metadata:
labels:
controller-tools.k8s.io: "1.0"
name: united-deployment2
spec:
selector:
matchLabels:
app: united-deployment2
workloadTemplate:
deploymentTemplate:
metadata:
labels:
app: united-deployment2
spec:
template:
metadata:
labels:
app: united-deployment2
spec:
containers:
- name: nginx
image: nginx:1.19.3
ports:
- containerPort: 80
protocol: TCP
topology:
pools:
- name: hangzhou
nodeSelectorTerm:
matchExpressions:
- key: apps.openyurt.io/nodepool
operator: In
values:
- hangzhou
replicas: 2
- name: shanghai
nodeSelectorTerm:
matchExpressions:
- key: apps.openyurt.io/nodepool
operator: In
values:
- shanghai
replicas: 2
revisionHistoryLimit: 5
EOF
  • Get pods that created by the unitedDeployment.
$ kubectl get pod -l "app in (united-deployment1,united-deployment2)" -owide
NAME READY STATUS RESTARTS AGE IP NODE NOMINATED NODE READINESS GATES
united-deployment1-hangzhou-fv6th-66ff6fd958-f2694 1/1 Running 0 18m 10.244.2.3 kind-worker <none> <none>
united-deployment1-hangzhou-fv6th-66ff6fd958-twf95 1/1 Running 0 18m 10.244.2.2 kind-worker <none> <none>
united-deployment1-shanghai-5p8zk-84bdd476b6-hr6xt 1/1 Running 0 18m 10.244.1.3 kind-worker2 <none> <none>
united-deployment1-shanghai-5p8zk-84bdd476b6-wjck2 1/1 Running 0 18m 10.244.1.2 kind-worker2 <none> <none>
united-deployment2-hangzhou-lpkzg-6d958b67b6-gf847 1/1 Running 0 15m 10.244.2.4 kind-worker <none> <none>
united-deployment2-hangzhou-lpkzg-6d958b67b6-lbnwl 1/1 Running 0 15m 10.244.2.5 kind-worker <none> <none>
united-deployment2-shanghai-tqgd4-57f7555494-9jvjb 1/1 Running 0 15m 10.244.1.5 kind-worker2 <none> <none>
united-deployment2-shanghai-tqgd4-57f7555494-rn8n8 1/1 Running 0 15m 10.244.1.4 kind-worker2 <none> <none>

Create Service with TopologyKeys

$ cat << EOF | kubectl apply -f -
apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
name: svc-ud1
annotations:
openyurt.io/topologyKeys: openyurt.io/nodepool
spec:
selector:
app: united-deployment1
type: ClusterIP
ports:
- port: 80
targetPort: 9376
EOF

Create Service without TopologyKeys

$ cat << EOF | kubectl apply -f -
apiVersion: v1
kind: Service
metadata:
name: svc-ud1-without-topology
spec:
selector:
app: united-deployment1
type: ClusterIP
ports:
- port: 80
targetPort: 9376
EOF

Test Service Topology

We use the nginx pod in the shanghai nodepool to test service topology. Therefore, its traffic can only be routed to the nodes that in shanghai nodepool when it accesses a service with the openyurt.io/topologyKeys: openyurt.io/nodepool annotation.

For comparison, we first test the service without serviceTopology annotation. As we can see, its traffic can be routed to any nodes.

$ kubectl exec -it united-deployment2-shanghai-tqgd4-57f7555494-9jvjb bash
root@united-deployment2-shanghai-tqgd4-57f7555494-9jvjb:/# curl svc-ud1-without-topology:80
united-deployment1-hangzhou-fv6th-66ff6fd958-twf95
root@united-deployment2-shanghai-tqgd4-57f7555494-9jvjb:/#
root@united-deployment2-shanghai-tqgd4-57f7555494-9jvjb:/# curl svc-ud1-without-topology:80
united-deployment1-shanghai-5p8zk-84bdd476b6-hr6xt
root@united-deployment2-shanghai-tqgd4-57f7555494-9jvjb:/#
root@united-deployment2-shanghai-tqgd4-57f7555494-9jvjb:/# curl svc-ud1-without-topology:80
united-deployment1-hangzhou-fv6th-66ff6fd958-twf95
root@united-deployment2-shanghai-tqgd4-57f7555494-9jvjb:/#
root@united-deployment2-shanghai-tqgd4-57f7555494-9jvjb:/# curl svc-ud1-without-topology:80
united-deployment1-hangzhou-fv6th-66ff6fd958-f2694

Then we test the service with serviceTopology annotation. As expected, its traffic can only be routed to the nodes in shanghai nodepool.

$ kubectl exec -it united-deployment2-shanghai-tqgd4-57f7555494-9jvjb bash
root@united-deployment2-shanghai-tqgd4-57f7555494-9jvjb:/# curl svc-ud1:80
united-deployment1-shanghai-5p8zk-84bdd476b6-wjck2
root@united-deployment2-shanghai-tqgd4-57f7555494-9jvjb:/#
root@united-deployment2-shanghai-tqgd4-57f7555494-9jvjb:/# curl svc-ud1:80
united-deployment1-shanghai-5p8zk-84bdd476b6-hr6xt
root@united-deployment2-shanghai-tqgd4-57f7555494-9jvjb:/#
root@united-deployment2-shanghai-tqgd4-57f7555494-9jvjb:/# curl svc-ud1:80
united-deployment1-shanghai-5p8zk-84bdd476b6-wjck2
root@united-deployment2-shanghai-tqgd4-57f7555494-9jvjb:/#
root@united-deployment2-shanghai-tqgd4-57f7555494-9jvjb:/# curl svc-ud1:80
united-deployment1-shanghai-5p8zk-84bdd476b6-hr6xt